Share of global Climate Debt rank 16th, 17th and 18th: The United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia (combined responsible for 2.8% of Climate Debt and 2.5% of Fossil CO2 Emissions 2016)

Share of global Climate Debt rank 16th, 17th and 18th: The United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia (combined responsible for 2.8% of Climate Debt and 2.5% of Fossil CO2 Emissions 2016)

The diagram below shows ‘Share of global Climate Debt‘ in 2010, 2015 and 2017, of the United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia (ranked 16th, 17th and 18th). The shares of the United Kingdom and Spain are decreasing, while the Malaysian share is increasing.

The following exposes the key-data in the Climate Debt calculations: Fossil CO2 Emissions, GDP, Environmental Performance, Ecological Footprint without carbon, Forest Cover, Primary Forests, Nuclear Power and Population. For comparison, Oman, Netherlands and Turkey (ranked 19th, 20th, and 21st in Share of global Climate Debt) are included in some diagrams.

The ‘Per capita Climate Debt‘ accumulated since 2000 of the United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia are $1,057, $1,435 and $2,044, respectively. The second diagram shows the trends between 2010 and 2017, with world average set at 100, for the three countries as well as of Oman, Netherlands and Turkey. The per capita Climate Debt ranking by October 2017 is shown in brackets.

The next three diagrams show Fossil CO2 Emissions from fuels and industrial processes¹, in tons per capita in decades, of the United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia. The green bars show the Free Emission Level² – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt. The grey bars are World emissions average.

CO2 Emissions data 1990-2016 (EDGAR) has been updated October 2017.

The three diagrams below show the per capita Fossil CO2 Emissions from fuels and industrial processes¹, annually since 2000, of the three countries. The green bars show the Free Emission Level². The stable reduction-rate of the United Kingdom is substantial although insufficient, Spain only cut emissions between 2007 and 2010, while Malaysia’s single reduction-year 2009 was due to the global financial crisis.

The diagram below shows per capita GDP(ppp-$) of the six countries and the World average. The wealth of the United Kingdom is 2.6 times greater than World average.

The next diagram shows the Relative Environmental Performance of the United Kingdom, Spain and Malaysia, with an average country set at 100. Details from the source are available here: ‘United Kingdom‘, ‘Spain‘ and ‘Malaysia‘.

The diagram shows the relative per capita Ecological Footprint without the carbon footprint of the three countries, with an average country set at 100. After a longer period with decrease the Spanish Footprint has surpassed both Malaysia’s and the United Kingdom’s within a couple of years. Note that footprint-data is around 4 years prior to the specified years and that calculation methods have changed over time in the diagram below. The latest and historic details from the source are available here: ‘United Kingdom‘, ‘Spain‘ and ‘Malaysia‘.

Forest Cover and the precious Primary Forests as percentage of total land area, in 1990 and 2015, are important indicators in ClimatePositions. The United Kingdom and especially Spain have increased the Forest Cover, however, both countries are stuck with zero Primary Forests. The Malaysian Forest Cover is nearby stable, while the precious Primary Forests increased significantly from 11.6% to 15.3% of the total land area.

The per capita Nuclear Power generation 2000-2016 is shown below (the per capita ranking is shown in brackets). The United States is the world’s largest Nuclear Power generator, while China ranked 3rd and Japan 18th, in 2016. In the calculation of Climate Debt, Nuclear Power must be phased out similar to Fossil Fuels, calculated as if Nuclear Power was oil-generated.

The diagrams below show Population density and growth between 2000 and 2016. The density of the United Kingdom is nearly five times higher than World average.

Finally, the table below shows four key values of the United Kingdom, Spain, Malaysia, Oman, Netherlands and Turkey in the calculation of national Climate Debts in ClimatePositions. The price of CO2 per ton (column two) is for total CO2 Emission from Fossil Fuels (without bunkers) and industrial processes. Climate change financing (column three) is from July 2017.


. Tons of CO2 Price per Climate change Financing as
. exceeded since ton CO2 financing share of
. 2000, per capita since 2000 per capita Climate Debt
. . . . .
United Kingdom 19.84 $8.05 $40.86 3.87%
Spain 30.46 $12.45 $5.60 0.39%
Malaysia 60.54 $17.00 $0.00 0.00%
Oman 200.42 $41.27 $0.00 0.00%
Netherlands 47.54 $18.48 $20.27 0.64%
Turkey 22.03 $9.55 $0.03 0.00%

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¹Fossil CO2 Emissions include all anthropogenic emissions from Fossil Fuel (combustion and production) and from industrial processes (cement, steel, liming, urea and ammonia production or consumption). The uncertainty in Fossil CO2 emissions is below 5% for industrialized countries and below 15% for developing countries.CO2 Emissions from international shipping and aviation (bunkers) are not included.

²The Free Emission Level (green bars) is determined by national CO2 Emissions 1990-1999 (base), and 11 more ‘Indicators‘, of which 7 are national and 4 are global.

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Updated data and diagrams of all ‘Indicators‘ and all countries in ClimatePositions are available in the menu ‘Calculations (Excel)‘.
Data on Fossil CO2 Emissions (excluding international shipping and aviation) and industrial processes (cement, steel, liming, etc.) are from EDGAR (European Commission) (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Information on national GDP(ppp-$) per capita: Worldbank (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Source on Environmental Performance: Yale and Columbia University (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Source on Ecological Footprint: Global Footprint Network (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Data on national Forest Cover and Primary Forests are from United Nations UN (Report: Global Forest Resources Assessments) (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Data on national Nuclear Power generation: World Nuclear Association (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
Data on national and global Populations is from Worldbank (links in the menu Calculations / Sources & Links).
PowerPoint collage with flags by Claus Andersen, 2017.

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