A devilish combination of poverty, armed conflict and violence in parts of Africa and Middle East, sends flows of refugees in boats across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe via Spain, Italy, Malta and Greece. In 2014 around 150,000 survived the dangerous trip to Italy alone. However, the European Union (EU) offers (as it seems) only a total of 5,000 resettlement places across Europe and the vast majority of all refugees will be sent back as irregular migrants. Read this ‘article’ from The Guardian.
How green are the fossil fuel producers? (Correlation between fossil fuel production, CO2 Emissions, GDP and Climate Debt)
Greenhouse gas emissions from burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal), is the main cause of manmade climate change. Comparable energy potentials of oil, natural gas and coal is defined as “tons oil equivalents”, meaning that the energy released from a given quantity of natural gas or coal is equivalent to one ton of oil. This way the total production of fossil fuels can be expressed in a single figure (not to be confused with market value, global warming potential or general usefulness) The world’s production in million tons oil equivalent, was in 2013: oil (4,130), natural gas (3,041 and coal (3,881).
The table below ranks the twenty countries with the largest per capita fossil fuel production (oil equivalents). Total production data of 68 countries is from ‘BPs Statistical Review of World Energy 2014’ (pdf, 48 pages).
Libya was the 29th worst performing country out of 145 in ClimatePositions 2010 and thus the worst performing country in Africa (read more ‘here’). The authoritarian oil-regime’s Climate Contribution (climate debt) has increased to $819 per capita in the updated calculation. Chad is Contribution Free in spite of a surprisingly large Ecological Footprint (excluding CO2 Emissions) – see the diagram. The large footprint is partly due to large herds of commercial cattle, goats, sheep, horses and donkeys. The following examines the indicators: CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$) and the Climate Contributions over time.