Posts by category: Area Use (forest/marine)

Climate change performance: 62 countries without Climate Debt (compared to Boycott Group A & B)

Climate change performance: 62 countries without Climate Debt (compared to Boycott Group A & B)

Only 62 countries among 159 with full data in ClimatePositions are without Climate Debt (see the ‘Ranking‘). The 62 countries (Group-62) are in alphabetic order: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Rep., Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba¹, Dem. Rep. Congo, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Moldova, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The table below shows Group-62s combined share of the world’s 1) Population, 2) Forest Cover, 3) Primary Forests, and 4) CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels (without bunker) and cement production.

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Climate change performance: Venezuela vs. Iraq (world’s proven reserves of oil and natural gas)

Climate change performance: Venezuela vs. Iraq (world’s proven reserves of oil and natural gas)

Venezuela holds the world’s largest proven oil reserves and the 8th largest proven natural gas reserves, while Iraq ranks 5th on oil and 12th on gas. Together, the two countries hold nearly 27% of the world’s proven reserves of oil and 5% of its natural gas.

The two tables below rank the 15 countries with the largest proven oil and natural gas reserves and their world shares. Combined, the 19 Fossil Fuel countries listed above hold 93% of the world’s proven oil reserves and 88% of the proven natural gas reserves. They represent 38% of the global population, 62% of the global CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels (2015) and 74% of the current global Climate Debt in ClimatePositions (the combined share of the global Climate Debt of the 15 countries has increased by 3.6% since 2012; see the ‘Ranking‘.  

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Climate Change Performance: Vietnam vs. United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Climate Change Performance: Vietnam vs. United Arab Emirates (UAE)

The difference in climate change performance of Vietnam and United Arab Emirates (UAE) is somewhat educational. Vietnam’s Climate Debt is $14 per capita, while the authoritarian oil state of UAEs is $10,884 (see the latest ‘Ranking‘). The two countries are the world’s 27th and 28th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuels (without bunker) and cement – combined, they emitted 0.52 % of the global CO2 in 2015. The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, Population, GDP(ppp-$) and Forest Cover (including Primary Forest).

First, the diagram below shows the national shares of the global Climate Debt, in 2017 and 2012. Both countries increased their shares in recent years, although at completely different levels and in unalike ways.

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Climate change performance: Malaysia vs. Spain

Climate change performance: Malaysia vs. Spain

Malaysia and Spain are the world’s 23rd and 24th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuels and cement. Combined, the two countries were responsible for 1.4% of world CO2 Emissions in 2015. The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$), Forest Cover (and Primary Forest) and Environmental Performance.

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt. The Spanish reductions are pretty much balanced by the Malaysian increases … which is world symptomatic.

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Climate change performance: Kazakhstan vs. Poland

Climate change performance: Kazakhstan vs. Poland

In 2015 Kazakhstan and Poland were the world’s 2nd and 4th largest per capita coal producers. No wonder, the two countries, inhabited by 0.76% of the global population, emitted as much as 1.58% of the CO2 from Fossil Fuels (without bunkers) and cement.

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels (without bunkers) and cement, annually since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt.

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Climate change performance: Thailand vs. France

Climate change performance: Thailand vs. France

Thailand and France are the world’s 19th and 20th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuels and cement. Combined, the two countries were responsible for 1.8% of world CO2 Emissions in 2015. The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$), Ecological Footprint, Forest Cover and Nuclear Power.

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt.

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Climate change performance: Turkey vs. Italy

Climate change performance: Turkey vs. Italy

Turkey and Italy are the world’s 17th and 18th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuels and cement. Combined, the two countries were responsible for 2.0% of world CO2 Emissions in 2015. The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$) and Forest Cover (including Primary Forest).

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt.

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Climate change performance: Brazil vs. Mexico

Climate change performance: Brazil vs. Mexico

Brazil and Mexico are the world’s 11th and 12th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuels and cement. Combined, the two countries were responsible for 2.8% of world CO2 Emissions in 2015. The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$), Forest Cover, Primary Forest and Ecological Footprint (without carbon footprint).

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt.

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Climate change performance: South Korea vs. Indonesia (peatlands in Southeast Asia)

Climate change performance: South Korea vs. Indonesia (peatlands in Southeast Asia)

In 2015 South Korea and Indonesia accounted for 3.60% and 0.51% of the global Climate Debt, respectively (see the ‘Ranking‘). The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$), Forest Cover (and peatlands), Primary Forest and Marine Protection.

The first two diagrams show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, annually since 2000, of South Korea and Indonesia. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt. The world’s 9th and 10th largest CO2-emitters were responsible for 1.7% (South Korea) and 1.5% (Indonesia) of global emissions in 2015, respectively. South Korea’s per capita emissions were 11.7 tons in 2015 (preliminary), while Indonesia’s were 2.1 tons (preliminary), which was 2.2% above the 2014-level.

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Reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Eat insects instead of meat

Reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Eat insects instead of meat

The burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) is the major driving force for global warming¹. However, livestock rearing is responsible for around 18% of the anthropological greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 equivalent) and various edible insects are therefore excellent alternatives to meat in the fight against climate change. It is estimated that insects today is part of the diets of 25-30% of the global population and about 1,900 species are being used as human consumption. The following examine the climate- and environmental impact of different species of insects versus beef, pigs and chicken.

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Research: The emerging mass extinction in the ocean threaten larger animals more compared to past mass extinctions (more bad news)

Research: The emerging mass extinction in the ocean threaten larger animals more compared to past mass extinctions (more bad news)

The research ‘Ecological selectivity of the emerging mass extinction in the oceans‘ (pdf, 4 pages), published in the journal Science, show that “extinction threat in the modern oceans is strongly associated with large body size, whereas past extinction events were either nonselective or preferentially removed smaller-bodied taxa.” Or in other words: The balance between smaller animals and larger animals changes to the disadvantage of larger animals – due to human impact.

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Report: Explaining Ocean Warming (the greatest hidden challenge of our generation)

Report: Explaining Ocean Warming (the greatest hidden challenge of our generation)

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’ has recently published the report ‘Explaining Ocean Warming (pdf, 460 pages)‘ representing the most comprehensive review to date on ocean warming. IUCN is the world’s largest environmental network, harnessing the knowledge and research of around 1,300 organizations and 16,000 experts. The chapters and sections in the report tells in the scientist’s own words the scale and nature of changes being driven by ocean warming, often in association with other stressors such as ocean acidification and oxygen reductions. The following is an adapted summary of the report’s conclusions and recommendations.

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Climate Debt: Finland ranks 13th among 148 countries

Climate Debt: Finland ranks 13th among 148 countries

Finland’s current Climate Debt is $3,078 per capita and the ‘Ranking’ by January 2016 was 13th among 148 countries, compared to 10th ranked in 2010. The following examines the Finnish CO2 Emissions, Nuclear Power, Forest Cover, Marine Protection, Environmental Performance and GDP(ppp-$), in comparison with the four largest trade partners Russia, Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom.

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Indonesia’s Climate Debt, rainforests, waters and greenhouse gas emissions

Indonesia’s Climate Debt, rainforests, waters and greenhouse gas emissions

Indonesia’s current Climate Debt, accumulated since 2000, is $123 per capita (‘ranks’ 67th among 148 countries, by January 2016). The total Climate Debt is $31 billion (‘ranks’ 25th). However, looking at the entire level of greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia is estimated to be the world’s 3rd largest emitter¹, with the large majority of its emissions coming from rainforest and peatland degradation and loss. Today, around 5% of the global greenhouse gas emissions are coming from Indonesia, with its 3.7% share of the global population. The following examines the indicators of CO2 Emissions, Forest Cover, Primary Forests, Marine Protection and GDP(ppp-$), and other warming-related topics such as forest fires, oil palms and ecosystems.

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Forest Cover and Primary Forests 1990-2015 (two country groups are examined)

Forest Cover and Primary Forests 1990-2015 (two country groups are examined)

This article is sourced from two publications by ‘FAO’: ‘Forest Ecology and Management 2015 (pdf 145 p)’ and ’Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 (pdf 253 p)’. The latter contains 46 different tables¹ with 234 countries and territories forest development 1990-2015.

Primary Forest is defined as naturally regenerated forest of native species, where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. Today, Primary forest accounts for 32% of global Forest Cover and has apparently increased by around 6.8% between 1990 and 2015, however, this increase is largely due to the fact that more countries have submitted data for the statistic. This taken into account, an overall global Primary Forest loss of 2.5%, since 1990, is more likely (and 10.0% loss in the tropics).

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Forest Cover updates 2015 (and the number of trees on the planet)

Forest Cover updates 2015 (and the number of trees on the planet)

The United Nations site for the ‘Millennium Development Goals Indicators’ (MDG Indicators) has published the estimated Forest Cover as percentage of land area of 225 countries. The table at the bottom includes only 83 selected countries with Climate Debt in ClimatePositions (the fraction of the Climate Debt caused by Forest Cover-change is revealed). However, Forest Cover alone is a poor ecosystem-indicator and therefore the area with the precious Primary Forests is also included in ClimatePositions (read the article ‘Forest Cover, Primary Forests and Climate Debt’).

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Climate change performance of Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas

Climate change performance of Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas

Jamaica’s updated Climate Debt per capita is $181 and the one of the Dominican Republic is $67. Cuba and Haiti are both Contribution Free (no Climate Debt). See the ‘ranking’ of 147 countries by November 2014. The Bahamas are not included due to lack of data on Ecological Footprint – however, if this indicator it is set at world’s average, then the per capita Climate Debt of the Bahamas would be $2,982 (ranked 17). The following examines CO2 Emissions from fossil fuels, GDP(ppp-$), Environmental Performance, Forest Cover and Marine Protected Area.

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Sweden beats Finland in climate change performance

Sweden beats Finland in climate change performance

Finland’s updated Climate Debt is $2,624 per capita and Sweden’s is $1,003. The ‘2014-rankings’ were 18th and 37th among 147 countries. The following examines the indicators of CO2 Emissions from fossil fuels, Nuclear Power, GDP(ppp-$), Climate Debt as a percentage of GDP(ppp-$), Forest Cover and Marine Protected Area.

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Marine Protected Area by country … updates 2014 (and resulting reductions of Climate Debt)

Marine Protected Area by country … updates 2014 (and resulting reductions of Climate Debt)

Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is an umbrella term for protected seas, oceans or large lakes. The overall aim is to ensure environmental sustainability and reduce biodiversity loss. This is being pursued by setting restrictions on human development, fishing practices, fishing seasons, etc. Marine Protected Areas covers only 4% of the world’s oceans¹. The degree of protection ranges from very poor protection of more or less lifeless waters to full protection of marine reserves with precious biodiversity.

The table below includes the 82 countries with Climate Debt in ClimatePositions. Data on 199 countries’ are available in the menu ‘Calculations (Excel)’ or at the sources. Note that the 1990 area data has been modified at the source.

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Climate change performance of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Climate change performance of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina are ranked 26th, 48th and 51st among 147 countries on the Climate Debt List in ClimatePositions (see the ‘ranking’). Their updated Climate Debts are respectively $1,660, $515 and $432 per capita. The following examines the GDP(ppp-$), CO2 Emissions from fossil fuels, Forest Cover, Nuclear Power and Relative Climate Debt over time.

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