Posts by tag: Japan

Global Carbon Project (CDIAC), located in the United States, stops publishing carbon emissions data by country – will be replaced by EDGAR in ClimatePositions

Global Carbon Project (CDIAC), located in the United States, stops publishing carbon emissions data by country – will be replaced by EDGAR in ClimatePositions

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has published annual Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuels and cement production by country since 1959 (‘Global Carbon Project‘), but now this continuous time series has come to an end and 2015 will be the last data-year (as it seems).

Since carbon emissions data from CDIAC (Global Carbon Project) is the core ‘Indicator‘ in ClimatePositions’ calculation of Climate Debt, carbon emissions data will be replaced with nearly similar data from ‘EDGAR‘ (‘European Commission‘ / ‘Climate Action‘), retroactively since 1990, in connection with the coming updates [done 16-08-2017].

The following describes the differences between CO2 Emissions data from Global Carbon Project (CDIAC) and EDGAR (sourced: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)), and the consequences in terms of Climate Debt in ClimatePositions – illustrated with a range of country examples. Note that other sources, such as ‘IEA‘, ‘EIA‘ and ‘BP‘, provides CO2 Emissions data-sets different from the ones of CDIAC and EDGAR.

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Indicator updates: GDP-ppp 2016 and Climate Change Financing (now only Multilateral Funds)

Indicator updates: GDP-ppp 2016 and Climate Change Financing (now only Multilateral Funds)

2016-updates of national per capita GDP(ppp-$) from ‘World Bank‘ is now available in ‘Calculation (Excel)‘. The world’s average per capita GDP(ppp-$) grew from $15,668 in 2015 to 16,136 in 2016 (3.0% growth). The diagram below shows the development in per capita GDP(ppp-$) 2000-2016 of the world’s five largest per capita emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuel and cement: Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, Kuwait, Bahrain and Brunei; in comparison with the world average.

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Climate change performance: South Korea vs. Indonesia (peatlands in Southeast Asia)

Climate change performance: South Korea vs. Indonesia (peatlands in Southeast Asia)

In 2015 South Korea and Indonesia accounted for 3.60% and 0.51% of the global Climate Debt, respectively (see the ‘Ranking‘). The following examines the ‘Indicators‘ of CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$), Forest Cover (and peatlands), Primary Forest and Marine Protection.

The first two diagrams show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, annually since 2000, of South Korea and Indonesia. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt. The world’s 9th and 10th largest CO2-emitters were responsible for 1.7% (South Korea) and 1.5% (Indonesia) of global emissions in 2015, respectively. South Korea’s per capita emissions were 11.7 tons in 2015 (preliminary), while Indonesia’s were 2.1 tons (preliminary), which was 2.2% above the 2014-level.

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Climate change performance: Japan vs. Germany (Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power)

Climate change performance: Japan vs. Germany (Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power)

The world’s 5th and 6th largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement Japan and Germany, were responsible for 3.4% and 2.1% of the global emissions in 2015. The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions, annually since 2000. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt.

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Climate change performance: China vs. the United States (wealth inequality)

Climate change performance: China vs. the United States (wealth inequality)

The diagrams below show the per capita CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel (without bunkers) and cement, annually since 2000, of China and the United States. The green bars show the Free Emission Level¹ – the exceedance is the basis for calculating the national Climate Debt. The world’s two largest CO2-emitters were responsible for 29% (China) and 15% of global emissions in 2015.

Apparently, China’s per capita emissions have peaked, while the moderate reduction-rate 2006-2012 of the United States, has flattened out.

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Final Update 2015: new rankings of 159 countries’ Climate Debt, accumulated since 2000

Final Update 2015: new rankings of 159 countries’ Climate Debt, accumulated since 2000

Every five year, since 2005, Final Updates of national Climate Debts are completed in ClimatePositions and 2015-updates¹ are now available in ‘Calculation (Excel)‘. New rankings in six categories, of 159 countries, are available in the menu “Climate Debt”. In the coming months, the climate change performances of selected countries will be analyzed in articles, starting with the United States and China.

The following illustrate Final Update 2015 in two ways: 1) The change of Climate Debt as percentage of the global Climate Debt, annually since 2000, of the 10 largest CO2 emitters, and 2) Key-figures of the United States.

The table below of the 10 largest CO2 emitters (representing 70% of the global emissions in 2015) shows the national shares of the global Climate Debt in 2015 and 2010. China, Russia and Saudi Arabia stand out with extremely harmful developments, while the United States still has by far the largest Climate Debt. See the latest ‘Ranking’ of 159 countries.

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Update: GDP(ppp-$) 2015

Update: GDP(ppp-$) 2015

2015-updates of national per capita GDP(ppp-$) from ‘World Bank’ is now available in ‘Calculation (Excel)’. The world’s average per capita GDP(ppp-$) grew from $15,065 in 2014 to $15,470 in 2015 (2.7% growth). In the midst of an unprecedented man-made climate catastrophe and the ‘Sixth mass extinction’ in progress, the human economy keeps growing.

The diagram below shows the development in per capita GDP(ppp-$) 2000-2015 of the world’s five largest emitters of CO2 from Fossil Fuel and cement: China (27.0% of the global emissions), the United States (14.7%), India (7.2%), Russia (4.9%) and Japan (3.4%), in comparison with the world’s average.

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Climate Debt: Norway ranks 9th (performance of top twenty from Human Development Index)

Climate Debt: Norway ranks 9th (performance of top twenty from Human Development Index)

The so called ‘Human Development Index 2015’ (UN) ranks Norway 1st among 188 countries. The index is based on 1) Life expectancy at birth, 2) Expected years of schooling, 3) Mean years of schooling and 4) Gross national income (GNI) per capita. However, the wealthy Scandinavian oil state ‘Ranks‘ 9th among 148 countries on Climate Debt per capita. Norway is in other words a highly human developed demolisher of the climate, one might say! The following examines the climate performance of Norway in comparison with the other top five countries from Human Development Index: Australia, Switzerland, Denmark and Netherland.

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Climate Debt of Germany & the European Union … versus the United States, China, Japan and Russia

Climate Debt of Germany & the European Union … versus the United States, China, Japan and Russia

The Climate Debt of ‘the 28 member states of the European Union (EU-28)’, China, the United States, Japan and Russia, combined, amounts to nearly 70% of the world’s total Climate Debt of around $5,700 billion. The following compares 1) EU-28 with the four countries, 2) Germany with EU-28, and 3) Germany with the four other countries.

The table below shows the per capita Climate Debt, the total Climate Debt and the share of the global Climate Debt, of EU-28¹, China, the United States, Japan and Russia. Rankings of 148 countries by 2010 and January 2016 (preliminary estimates) are available in the menu “Climate Debt”.

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Japans Climate Debt after the Nuclear Power shutdown

Japans Climate Debt after the Nuclear Power shutdown

In 2010 near 27% of Japans electricity supply was generated by Nuclear Power – in 2012, shortly after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, the percentage was below 2%. How did Japan respond to this energy shock and how did it influence the Climate Debt in ClimatePositions? The following examines the Nuclear Power (and electric energy mix), CO2 Emissions, GDP(ppp-$) and Climate Debt.

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Preliminary carbon dioxide emissions 2014, by country

Preliminary carbon dioxide emissions 2014, by country

The Global Carbon Project’ at Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) has published preliminary CO2 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement for 2014, for more than 200 countries. The data is being used in a preliminary calculation of accumulated Climate Debt in ClimatePositions¹. The table below shows the estimated per capita emissions plus the updated Climate Debts, of the twenty largest total emitters (responsible for 77% of the global emissions in 2014).

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Analyses of the global CO2 target and GDP(ppp-$)

Analyses of the global CO2 target and GDP(ppp-$)

The calculation of Climate Debt in ClimatePositions is based on a balance between many ‘indicators’ and a common global per capita CO2 target. To illustrate the nature of this balance twelve countries are analyzed in this article in terms of the indicator of GDP(ppp-$) and the global CO2 target. The 12-Countries Group represents 38% of the global population, 65% of the global CO2 Emissions from fossil fuels and around 70% of the global Climate Debt.

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Fossil fuel subsidies: $5.3 trillion in 2015 (IMF survey)

Fossil fuel subsidies: $5.3 trillion in 2015 (IMF survey)

Estimates from the ‘International Monetary Fund’ (IMF) show that fossil fuel subsidies of 155 countries representing 98% of the world’s population, amounted $4.2 trillion (5.8% of global GDP) in 2011 and $4.9 trillion (6.5% of global GDP) in 2013. Projections for 2015 suggest $5.3 trillion (6.5% of global GDP). This huge amount of subsidies is of cause plain stupid.

For comparison, the total ‘Climate Debt of 147 countries‘ in ClimatePositions, accumulated between 2000 and 2013, amounted $5.2 trillion. Roughly speaking, one year of global subsidies equals the total accumulated Climate Debt. Note that global climate change funding is only around $0.14 trillion.

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Climate change performance: Japan vs. South Korea

Climate change performance: Japan vs. South Korea

The first diagram shows the nuclear power generation per capita of the two countries. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011 has caused a remarkable shutdown of generation – while CO2 Emissions from the burning of petroleum, coal and natural gas have increased (from 2011 to 2012 respectively by 6%, 5% and 3%) to close the energy gap. Nuclear power generation produce dangerous radioactive waste to deal with for thousands of future generations (10,000 to 250,000 years) and in ClimatePositions nuclear power is not accepted as a national CO2 Emission reduction instrument (read ‘more’). The following analyzes the indicator trends of Japan and South Korea.

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New ranking 2014 – update of 147 countries’ climate debt

New ranking 2014 – update of 147 countries’ climate debt

The data in ClimatePositions are updated consecutively and since the data year 2010 the eleven ‘indicators’ have all been updated.

The new rankings of 147 countries are now available in the menu “Contributions” (with six categories).

All country data and diagrams are available in the menu ‘Calculations (Excel)’. In the coming months selected countries will be analyzed in articles. The following illustrates the latest updates in two ways: 1) The change of climate debt as a percentage of the global climate debt of the twelve largest CO2 emitters, and 2) The key-figures of the United Kingdom.

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Nuclear Power updates 2013

Nuclear Power updates 2013

The world’s Nuclear Power generation increased marginally in 2013 compared to 2012. The last four years of generated global nuclear electricity was:

  • 2010: 2,629 billion kWh
  • 2011: 2,516 billion kWh
  • 2012: 2,346 billion kWh
  • 2013: 2,359 billion kWh
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2012 update of GDP in ClimatePositions

2012 update of GDP in ClimatePositions

The annual national GDP(ppp-$) (standard of living measured by purchasing power) has a direct impact on the Climate Contributions. Updating of GDP for 2011 and 2012 are now entered ClimatePositions (Excel) and for most countries, this means considerable increases in the Climate Contribution (climate debt). In connection with the GDP update, a minor simplification of the calculation method has been made (recent years are still weighted more than previous years in GDP+).

The diagram shows the updated (and revised) GDP(ppp-$) 2000-2012 for the five largest CO2 Emitters: China, United States, Russia, India and Japan.

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COP19 negotiating positions: China, United States, India, Russia and Japan

COP19 negotiating positions: China, United States, India, Russia and Japan

The world’s five largest CO2 emitters – China, United States, Russia, India and Japan – are responsible for 57% of global CO2 Emissions (2006-2010) and 58% of the Climate Contributions (climate debt) in ClimatePositions 2010 (see the front diagram). Add to the group the populous Contribution Free countries Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Philippines and Ethiopia and the total share would almost reflect the world average of Population (56%), CO2 Emissions (59%) and Climate Contributions (58%). Leaders of these ten countries sitting around an imaginary negotiating table should be able to create a global climate agreement with binding CO2 reductions and full financing – but it will not happen!

The following depicts the submissions, basic statistics and negotiating positions at COP19 in Warsaw of the five largest CO2 emitters. See the five countries’ Contributions over time ‘here‘, the Contributions as a percentage of GDP ‘here‘ and read about the COP19 country groups ‘here‘.

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Income Equality, Life Expectancy, Democracy Index … and Climate Contributions

Income Equality, Life Expectancy, Democracy Index … and Climate Contributions

123 out of 145 countries with full data in ClimatePositions are included in an inventory of Income Equality (see the source at the bottom), which shows how much the 10% poorest earns compared to the 10% richest. 53 out of the 123 countries are Contribution Free (no climate debt) in ClimatePositions 2010 and 70 countries are not.

The table below shows the difference between the two groups of countries in terms of Income Equality, Life Expectancy, number of Full Democracies and number of Authoritarian Regimes. To clarify the trend the 20 countries with the largest Climate Contributions appear at the top of the table. The 123 countries represent 95% of the world population.

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Climate Contributions as a percentage of GDP for the top ten CO2 Emitters

Climate Contributions as a percentage of GDP for the top ten CO2 Emitters

The top ten CO2 Emitters were responsible for 67% of the global CO2 Emissions in 2006-2010. Adjusting the national Contributions (climate debt) for the size of the GDP(ppp-$) is essential. Allowing the wealthy United States get away with paying the same dollar price of a ton of CO2 (carbon dioxide) exceeded as China is of course absurd. The countries’ climate change performances are measured indirectly as the Contributions’ percentage of the national GDP(ppp-$).

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